Metallurgy and Metalworking
The special focus of the Davistown Museum bibliographies in the Hand Tools in History series is on ferrous metallurgy from the early Iron Age to the beginning of the modern era. Numerous references pertaining to modern iron and steel making technologies are included in our bibliographies, which are nonetheless not intended to be a survey of important references on this topic.
Aitchison, Leslie. (1960). A history of metals. 2 volumes. Interscience Publishers, NY, NY.
Allen, Richard Sanders. (1992). Connecticut iron and steel from Black Sea sands. Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 18(1/2). pg. 129-132. W.
Alling, George W. (1903). Points for buyers and users of tool steel. D. Williams, New York, N.Y.
Arnold, J.O. (1898). The Micro-chemistry of cementation. Journal of Iron and Steel Institute. Part II. pg. 185-194.
Bancroft, W. E. (1946). Salt baths for hardening high speed steel. Metal Progress. pg. 941-947.
Barraclough, K.C. (October 1971). Puddled steel: A forgotten chapter in the history of steelmaking. J. Iron Steel Inst. 209. pg. 785-789.
Barraclough, K.C. (December 1971). Puddled steel: The technology. J. Iron Steel Inst. 209. pg. 952-957.
Barraclough, K.C. (1974). The production of steel in Britian by the cementation and crucible processes. Historical Meatallurgy. 8. pg. 103-111.
Barraclough, K.C. (1976). The development of the cementation process for the manufacture of steel. Post-Medieval Archaeology. 10. pg. 65-88.
Barraclough, K.C. (1978). A crucible steel melter's logbook.Historical Metallurgy. 12.
Barrett, Charles S. (1943). Structure of metals: Crystallographic methods, principles and data. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Batra, R.C. (1994). Consideration of microstructural changes in the study of adiabatic shear bands. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Army Research Park. X.
Bauerman, H. (1891). Elements of metallurgy. 3rd edition. Phillips, J.A., Ed. London, UK.
Baylis, B. (1866). On puddling -- by a practical puddler. Published privately, London, UK.
Bell, Isaac Lowthian. (1872). Chemical phenomena of iron smelting: An experimental and practical examination of the circumstances which determine the capacity of the blast furnace, the temperature of the air, and the proper condition of the materials to be operated upon. D. Van Nostrand, NY, NY.
Bell, Isaac Lowthian. (1878). On the separation of phosphorus from pig iron. Journal of Iron and Steel Institute. 1. pg. 17-34, 34-37.
Bell, Isaac Lowthian. (1884). Principles of the metallurgy of iron and steel. Newcastle, UK.
Bell Telephone System. Principles of zone melting. Monograph 2000.
Bell Telephone System. Ultrapure metals produced by zone melting technique. Monograph 2147.
Bell Telephone System. Continuous multistage separation by zone melting. Monograph 2388.
Bell Telephone System. Single crystals of exceptional quality by zone leveling. Monograph 2626.
Bergman, Torbern. (1781). Dissertatio chemica de analysi ferri. Uppsala, Sweden.
Bessemer, Henry, Sir. (August 13, 1856). The manufacture of iron (steel) without fuel. Cheltenham Meeting of the British Association [of iron makers].
Bethlehem Steel Company. (1944). Properties of frequently used carbon and alloy steels. Bethlehem, PA.
Bethlehem Steel Company. (1944). Steel in the making. Bethlehem, PA.
Bethlehem Steel Company. (1942). Tool steel treaters’ guide. Bethlehem, PA.
Bethlehem Steel Company. (1959). Modern steels and their properties: Carbon and alloy steel bars. Handbook 268-D. Bethlehem Steel Company, Bethlehem, PA. IS.
Bezis-Selfa, John. (2004). Forging America: Ironworkers, adventurers and the Industrial Revolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Birch, Alan. (1952). Midlands iron industry during the Napoleonic wars. Edgar Allen News. 31. pg. 231-233.
Blair, Claude, Ed. (1987). The history of silver. Ballantine Books, New York, NY. IS.
Boucher, Jack E. (1964). Of Batsto and bog iron. The Batsto Citizens Committee, Batsto, NJ. IS.
Brearley, Harry. (February 2, 1924). Stainless steel: The story of its discovery. Sheffield Daily Independent.
Brearley, Harry. (1941). Knotted string: An autobiography of a steel-maker. Longmans.
Brearley, Harry. (1946). Talks about steel making. American Society for Metals, Cleveland, Ohio.
Brownlie, D. (1930). The history of the cementation process of steel manufacture. Journal of Iron and Steel Institute. CXXI, Part I. pg. 455-464, 474.
Bullens, D. K. (1938/1939). Steel and its treatment. 2 vols. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Camp, J.M. and Francis, C.B. (1919). The making, shaping, and treating of steel. Pittsburgh, PA.
Campbell, H. H. (1907). The manufacture and properties of iron and steel. Hill Publishing Co., NY, NY. W.
Campbell, H. H. (1896). The manufacture and properties of structural steel. Scientific Publishing Co., NY, NY.
Campbell, H. L. (date unknown). Metal casings. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Carlberg, Per. (July 1958). Early industrial production of Bessemer steel at Edsken. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 189. pg. 201-204.
Carbon and Alloy Steels Committee. (2005). New steel designation system for wrought or rolled steel. J402_200507. SAE International Standards, Warrendale, PA.
Carpenter, H.C.H. and Robertson, J.M. (1930). The metallography of some ancient Egyptian implements. Journal of Iron and Steel Institute. CXXI, Part I. pg. 417-448.
Carpenter Steel Company. (1944). Carpenter matched tool steel manual. Seventh edition. The Carpenter Steel Company, Reading, PA. IS.
Chard, Jack. (1971). Historic ironmaking. Journal of the Northeast Historical Archaeology. 1(1). pg. 25-31.
Chard. Jack. (1995). Making iron and steel: The historic processes, 1700-1900 . North Jersey Highlands Historical Society, Ringwood, NJ.
Charles, J. A. (1975). Where is the tin? Antiquity. 49. pg. 19-24.
Christian, J.W. (1965). Physical properties of martensite and bainite. Iron and Steel Institute, London.
Clarke, E.B. (1914). Electric furnaces for steelmaking. TAES. 25. pg. 139-159.
Coghlan, Herbert H. (1956). Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World. Occasional Papers on Technology. 8. Oxford University Press. pg. 134-165.
Colby, A.L. (1903). Nickel steel: Its properties and applications. Proceedings of the American Society of Testing Materials. 3. pg. 141-168.
Conner, William G. (1921-1922). The carbonizing of steel parts. In: Transactions of American Society for Steel Treating. Volume II. pg. 148.
Cottrell, Alan Howard. (1967). An introduction to metallurgy. Edward Arnold, London.
Craddock, Paul T. (date unknown). The manufacture and properties of iron and steel. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY.
Craddock, P.T., Ed. (1998). 2000 years of zinc and brass. British Museum Occasional Paper 50, London, England.
Crossley, D.W. (1981). Medieval iron smelting. In: Medieval industry. D.W. Crossley, Ed. CBA Research Report. no. 40. Council for British Archaeology, London, UK. pg. 29-41.
Crookes, W. and Rohrig, E.A. (1870). A practical treatise on metallurgy. New York, NY.
Davis, James J. (1922). The Iron puddler. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, IN.
Dichmann, C. (date unavailable). The basic open-hearth steel process. Constable & Co., Ltd., London.
Dixon, George F. (2004). A blacksmith’s craft. Blue Moon Press, Huntingdon, PA.
Ducoff-Barone, Deborah. (1983). Marketing and manufacturing: A study of domestic cast iron articles produced at Colebrookdale furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1735-1751. Pennsylvania History. 50. pg. 20-37.
Elam, C.F. (1935). The distortion of metal crystals. Oxford.
Ellingham, H.J.T. (1944). The physical chemistry of process metallurgy. Journal of the Society of Chemistry and Industry. 63. pg. 125.
Espelund, Arne. (1997). The “Evenstad” process-description, excavation, experiment and metallurgical evaluation. In: Norbach, Lars Chr., Ed., Early iron production-archaeology, technology and experiments. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark. pg. 47-58.
Espelund, Arne. (1997). Ironmaking in Trondelag during the Roman and Pre-Roman Iron Age. In: Norbach, Lars Chr., Ed., Early iron production-archaeology, technology and experiments. Technical Report Nr. 3. The Historical-Archaeological Experimental Centre, Lejre, Denmark. pg. 103-114.
Evenstad, O. (1968). A treatise on iron ore and the process of turning it into iron and steel. Bull. HMG. Translated by N.L. Jensen. 2(2). pg. 61-5.
Fairbairn, William. (1865). Iron: Its history, properties and processes of manufacture. Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh.
Fennimore, Donald L. (1996). Metalwork in early America: Copper and its alloys from the Winterthur collection. Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, DL.
Finley, M.I. (Sept 1970). Metals in the ancient world. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 4.
Flather, D. (1901-1902). Crucible steel: Its manufacture and treatment. Proc. Staffs. Iron Steel Inst., pg. 55-82.
Forsythe, Robert. (1908). The blast furnace and the manufacture of pig iron: An elementary treatise for the use of the metallurgical student and the furnaceman. D. Williams Co., NY, NY.
Fruehan, R. J. (1998). The making, shaping, and treating of steel. 11th edition. Vol. 2 Steelmaking and refining volume. AISE Steel Foundation, Pittsburgh, PA.
Fulford, Michael, Sim, David, Doig, Alistair, and Painter, Jon. (2005). In defence of Rome: A metallographic investigation of Roman ferrous armour from northern Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science. 32. pg. 241-250. IS.
Fuller, John, Sr. (1894). Art of coppersmithing: A practical treatise on working sheet copper into all forms. David William, NY, NY. Reprinted in 1993 by Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.
Gale, Walter Keith Vernon. (1963/1964). Wrought iron: A valediction. Trasactions of the Newcomen Society. 36. pg. 1-11.
Gale, Walter Keith Vernon. (1964/1965). The rolling of iron. Trasactions of the Newcomen Society. 37. pg. 35-46.
Gale, Walter Keith Vernon. (1979). The black country iron industry. Metals Society, London, UK.
Gardner, John. (March 1970). Cast steel. The Chronicle. 23(1). pg. 6, 16. IS.
Gilmer, H. (1953). Birth of the American crucible steel industry. Western Pennsylvania Historical Mag. xxxvi. pg. 19-34.
Giolitti, Frederico. (1915). The cementation of iron and steel. Translated from the Italian by Richards, Joseph W. and Rouiller, Charles A. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Gledhill, J.M. (1904). The development and use of high speed steel. Journal of Iron and Steel Institute. II. pg. 127-167.
Gledhill, J.M. (1904). High speed tool steel. Engineering Review. pg. 405-411.
Goodale, S.L. (1920). Chronology of iron and steel. Pittsburgh, PA.
Gordon, Robert B. (1983). Material evidence of the development of metalworking technology at the Collins Axe Factory. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 9. pg. 19-28.
Gordon, Robert B. (1988). Strength and structure of wrought iron. Archeomaterials. 2. pg. 109-137.
Gordon, Robert B. (2001). A landscape transformed: The ironmaking district of Salisbury, Connecticut. Oxford University, New York, NY.
Gordon, Robert B. and Raber, Michael S. (1984). An early American integrated steelworks. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 10(1). pg. 17-34.
Gray, R. D. (1979). Alloys and automobiles. Indianapolis.
Greenwood, William Henry. (1870). A manual of metallurgy. G. P. Putnam’s sons, New York, NY. IS.
Greenwood, William Henry. (1902). Steel and iron: Comprising the practice and theory of the several methods pursued in their manufacture, and of their treatment in the rolling mills, the forge and the foundry. Cassell and Co., Ltd., London.
Greenwood, William Henry. (1907). Iron: Its sources, properties, and manufacture. Revised and partially rewritten by A. Humboldt Sexton. David McKay, Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
Grossmann, Marcus Aurelius. (1935). Principles of heat treatment. United States Steel Corp. The Haddon Craftsmen, Inc., Scranton, PA. IS.
Grossman, M.A. and Bain, E.C. (1931). High-speed steel. New York, NY.
Guillet, L. (1905). Les aciers speciaux, 2 Vols. Paris, FR.
Guthrie, R.I.L. and Stubbs, P. (1973). Kinetics of scrap melting in baths of molten pig iron. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly. 12(4). pg. 465-473.
Hackney, W. (1874/1875). The manufacture of steel. Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. xlii. pg. 2-68.
Hadfield, R.A. (1888). Manganese steel. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. 33. pg. 41-77.
Hadfield, R.A. (1888). Manganese and its applications in metallurgy. Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. cxiii. pg. 1-59.
Hadfield, R.A. (1889). On manganese steel. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. II. pg. 41-47.
Hadfield, R.A. (1889). On alloys of iron and silicon. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. II. pg. 222-242.
Hadfield, R.A. (1892). Alloys of iron and chromium. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. II. pg. 49-131.
Hadfield, R.A. (1894). The early history of crucible steel. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. II. pg. 224-238.
Hadfield, R.A. (1898/1899). Alloys of iron and nickel. Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. cxxviii. pg. 1-125.
Hadfield, Robert. (January 1912). On Sinhalese iron and steel of ancient origin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character. 86(584). pg. 94-100. X.
Hadfield, Robert Abbott, Sir. (1925). Metallurgy and its influence on modern progress, with a survey of education and research. Chapman & Hall, London. W.
Hadfield, Robert A., Sir. (1931). Faraday and his metallurgical researches with special reference to their bearing on the development of alloy steels. Chapman & Hall, London. W.
Hall, J.H. (April 3, 1913). The Manufacture of crucible steel. Iron Trades Review. pg. 791-793.
Hall, J.H. (April 10, 1913). The Manufacture of crucible steel. Iron Trades Review. pg. 849-856.
Harbord, Frank William and Hall. (1918). The metallurgy of steel. C. Griffin & Co., London. W.
Hasluck, Paul N., Ed. (1904). Metalworking: A book of tools, materials, and processes for the handyman. Cassell and Company Ltd., London. Reprinted in 1994 by Lindsay Publications.
Hatch, Charles E. Jr. and Gregory, Thurlow Gates. (1962) The first American blast furnace, 1619 - 1622. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 70. pg. 259 - 296.
Hatfield, William Herbert. (1926). Comparison of permanent magnet steels. J. Sci. Instrum. 3. pg. 234-235.
Hatfield, William Herbert. (1928). The application of science to the steel industry. Printed by Evangelical Publishing House, Cleveland.
Hatfield, William Herbert. (1928). Cast iron in the light of recent research. Charles Griffin & Co., London.
Hatfield, William Herbert. (1938). Research in the iron and steel industry. Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland, London.
Hatfield, William Herbert. (1942). Lecture on rust-, acid- & heat-resisting steels. Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland, London.
Hausner, H. H., Ed. (1966-85). Modern developments in powder metallurgy. 16 vols. Metal Powder Industries Federation.
Hibbard, Henry Deming. (1916). Manufacture and uses of alloy steels. G.P.O., Washington.
Hiles, J. and Mott, R.A. (1944). The mode of combustion of coke. Fuel. 23(6). pg. 154-171.
Hover, Otto. (1969). Encyclopedia of ironwork. Universe Books, Inc., New York, NY. IS.
Howe, H. M. (1890). The metallurgy of steel. The Scientific Publishing Co, NY, NY.
Hubbard, Howard G., Ed. (November, 1937). Metal alloys. The Chronicle. 2(2). pg. 13. IS.
Huddleston, Jerry and Stutzenberger, Fred. (Sugust 2006). Damascene: Part II. Muzzle Blasts. 67(12). pg. 61-64. X.
Hyde, Charles. (1977). Technological change in the British iron industry, 1700-1870. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
International Correspondence Schools. (1916). Gauges, jigs, dies, tempering, heat treatment, blacksmithing and forging. I.C.S. Reference Library, International Textbook Company, Scranton, NY.
Ishihara, Y. (1958). Progress of special steelmaking in Japan. Symposium on Production of Alloy Steels (Jamshedpur). pg. 172-175.
Jeans, J.S. (1880). Steel: Its history, manufacture, properties and uses. London.
Jefferson, T. B. and Woods, Gorham. (1954). Metals and how to weld them. The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, Cleveland, OH. IS.
Johannsen, Otto. (1924). Geschichte des eisens; im auftrage des Vereins deutscher eisenhüttenleute gemeinverstñdlich dargestellt, von dr. Otto Johannsen. Verlag Stahleisen m. b. h., Düsseldorf.
Kashchieva, Elena, Tsaneva, Svetila, Dimitriev, Yanko and Kirov, Roumen. (2003). Microstructure and chemical composition of Thracian medallions with enamel in millefiori technique found in Bulgaria. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 323: 137-142.
Kauffman, Henry J. (n.d.). Early American copper, tin and brass: Handcrafted metalware from colonial times. Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ.
Kauffman, Henry J. (1948). Coppersmithing in Pennsylvania: Being a treatise on the art of the eighteenth century coppersmith, together with a description of his products and his establishments. Pennsylvania German Folk Lore Society, Allentown, PA.
Kauffman, Henry J. (1966). Early American ironware: Cast and wrought. Weathervane Books, NY, NY.
Kauffman, Henry J. (1966). Metalworking trades in early America. The Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc. Reprinted in 1995 by Astragal Press, Mendham, NJ. IS.
Kauffman, Henry J. (1968). American Copper & Brass. T. Nelson, Camden, NJ. Reprinted in 1979 by Bonanza Books, NY, NY. IS.
Kauffman, Henry J. (December 1969). Cast steel. The Chronicle. 22(4). pg. 49-50. IS.
Kauffman, Henry J. (1970). The American pewterer: His techniques & his products. T. Nelson, Camden, NJ.
Kayser, J.F. (March 11, 1927). Practical crucible steel making. Iron and Coal Trades Review. pg. 396-397.
Kayser, J.F. (March 18, 1927). Practical crucible steel making. Iron and Coal Trades Review. pg. 438-439.
Kemp, Emory L. (1993). The introduction of cast and wrought iron in bridge building. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 19(2), pg. 5-16.
Kester Solder Company. (1948). Solder and soldering technique: A condensed industrial manual. Kester Solder Company, Chicago, IL. IS.
Killick, D.J. and Gordon, R.B. (1987). Microstructures of puddling slags from Fontley, England and Roxbury, Connecticut, U.S.A. Journal of Historical Metallography Society. 21. pg. 28-36.
Landrin, H.C. (1868). Treatise on steel: Comprising its theory, metallurgy, properties, practical working, and use. Translation of original French done by A. A. Fesquet. Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia, PA.
Lankford, William T., Jr., Samways, N.L., Craven, R.F., McGannon, H.E., Ed. (1985). The making, shaping and treating of steel, 10th Ed. United States Steel Co., Herbick & Held, Pittsburgh, PA
Laughlin, Ledlie I. (1940). Pewter in America. 2 vols. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Leever, Sylvia. (October 2003). Late medieval iron making, the bloomery process: A treatise on the making of iron in a bloomery and on the quality of the armour made from such iron. TUDelft: Delft, Materials Sciance and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Delft, NL. IS.
Light, John D. (1987). Blacksmithing technology and forge construction. Technology and Culture. 28(3). pg. 658-665.
Light, John D., and Wylie, William N. (1986). A guide to research in the history of blacksmithing. Research Bulletin. No. 243, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Lister, Raymond. (1966). The craftsman in metal. A. S. Barnes and Company, NY, NY. IS.
Longmuir, P. (1905). Practical metallurgy: Iron and steel. London.
Louis, H. (1879). On the chemistry of puddling. J. Iron Steel Inst. 1. pg. 219-226.
Lynch, John. (1957). Metal sculpture: New forms new techniques. The Viking Press, NY, NY. IS.
Markham, Eward Russell. (1903). The American steel worker. The Derry-Collard Company, NY, NY.
Martinez, M.A., Abenojar, J., Mota J.M. and Calabres, R. (2006). Ultra high carbon steels obtained by powder metallurgy. Materials Science Forum. 530-531: 328.33.
Maryon, Herbert. (1961). Early near eastern steel swords. AJA. 65. pg. 173-84.
Masse, H.J.L.J. (1911). Chats on old pewter. T. Fisher Unwin, London, UK.
McCreight, Tim and Bsullak, Nicole. (2001). Color on metal: 50 artist share insights and techniques. Guild Publishing, Shamper's Bluff, New Brunswick, Canada.
McCreight, Tim and Kazan, Katie. (2007). Metalsmith’s book of boxes and lockets. Brynmorgan Press, Brunswick, ME.
Mehl, Robert Franklin. (1948). A brief history of the science of metals. Sponsored jointly by the Institute of Metals Division, AIME and the Seeley W. Mudd Memorial Fund, American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, NY, NY.
Mehl, R.F. (1965). On the Widmannstatten structure. In: Smith, C.S., The Sorby centennial symposium on the History of Metallurgy. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, NY.
Meilach, Dona and Seiden, Don. (1966). Direct metal sculpture: Creative techniques and appreciation. Crown Publishers Inc., NY, NY. IS.
Metal Powder Industries Federation. (2007). Advances in powder metallurgy and particulate materials: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, May 13-16, Denver, Colorado. Princeton, NJ: MPIF.
Metallurgical Society. (1961). History of iron and steelmaking in the United States: Publication in one book of a series of historical articles that have appeared in Journal of Metals, 1956-1961. American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, NY, NY.
Misa, Thomas J. (1995). A nation of steel. London.
Moldenke, Richard George Gottlob. (1910). The production of malleable castings: A practical treatise on the processes involved in the manufacture of malleable cast iron. Penton Pub. Co., Cleveland, OH.
Moldenke, Richard George Gottlob. (1917). The principles of iron founding. McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY, NY.
Moldenke, Richard George Gottlob. (1927). Malleable casting. International Textbook Co., Scranton, PA.
Morton, G.R., and Brit, R.G. (1974). The Present day production of wrought iron. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society. 8. pg. 96-102.
Nosek, Elzbieta M. (1985). The Polish smelting experiments in furnaces with slag pits. In: Craddock, P.T. and Hughes, M.J., Eds. Furnaces and smelting technology in antiquity. British Museum Occasional Paper 48, London, England. IS.
Neilson, William G. (July 24, 1867). Manufacture of wrought iron direct from the ore. Bulletin of the Iron and Steel Association. 26.
Notis, M. and Shugar, A.(2003). Roman shears: Metallography, composition, and a historical approach to Investigation. Proceedings of the Archaeometallurgy in Europe Conference, Milan, Italy Sept 24-26 2003. 1. pg. 109-118. X.
Nuwer, Michael. (October 1988). From batch to flow: Production technology and work-force skills in the steel industry, 1880-1920. Technology and Culture. 29. pg. 808 - 838.
Oberg, Erik, Jones, Franklin D., Horton, Holbrook L. and Ryffel, Henry H. ( 1996). Machinery’s Handbook: 25th edition: A reference book for the mechanical engineer, designer, manufacturing engineer, draftsman, toolmaker, and machinist. Industrial Press Inc., NY, NY. IS.
Osborn, Henry Stafford. (1869). The metallurgy of iron and steel: Theoretical and practical: In all its branches; with special reference to American materials and processes. H.C. Baird, Philadelphia, PA.
Overman, Frederick. (1851). The manufacture of steel: Containing the practice and principles of working and making steel. A. Hart, Philadelphia, PA
Overman, Frederick. (1852). A treatise on metallurgy; comprising mining, and general and particular metallurgical operations, with a description of charcoal, coke, and anthracite furnaces, blast machines, hot blast, forge hammers, rolling mills, etc., etc. D. Appleton, NY, NY.
Overman, Frederick. (1854). The manufacture of iron, in all its various branches. Including a description of wood-cutting, coal digging, and the burning of charcoal and coke; the digging and roasting of iron ore, the building and management of blast furnaces, working by charcoal, coke, or anthracite; the refining of iron. Also a description of forge hammers, rolling mills, blast machines, hot blast, etc. etc. To which is added an essay on the manufacture of steel. H. C. Baird, Philadelphia, PA.
Overman, Frederick. (1894). The manufacture of steel: Containing the practice and principles of working and making steel. H.C. Baird, Philadelphia, PA.
Palmer, Frank R. (1937). Tool steel simplified: A handbook of modern practice for the man who makes tools. The Carpenter Steel Company, Reading, PA. IS.
Palmer, Frank R., Luerssen, George V. and Pendleton, Joseph S., Jr. (1978). Tool steel simplified. Fourth Edition. Chilton Company, Radnor, PA. IS.
Parr, J.G. (1972). The sinking of the Ma Robert: An excursion into mid nineteenth century steelmaking. Technology and Culture. 13(2). pg. 209-225.
Parsons, Sam Jones. (1909). Malleable cast iron. Van Nostrand, NY, NY.
Percy, J. (1864). Metallurgy: Iron and steel. London.
Percy, J. (1877). On the cause of the bilsters on "Blister steel". Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. II. pg. 460-463.
Perttula, Juha. 2001. Reproduced wootz Damascus steel. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy. 30:65-8.
Perttula, Juha. 2004. Wootz Damascus steel of ancient orient. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy. 33:92-7.
Phillips, J. Arthur. (1874). Elements of metallurgy: A practical treatise on the art of extracting metals from their ores. C. Griffin and Company, London, UK.
Piaskowski, J. (1972). Criteria for determining a technology of bloomery iron products. Archaeologia Polona. 17(1). pg. 7-45.
Pleiner, Radomir. (1969). Iron working in ancient Greece. National Technical Museum, Prague.
Pleiner, Radomir. (1980). Early iron metallurgy in Europe. In: Wertime, Theodore A. and Muhly, James D., Eds. The Coming of the Age of Iron. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. IS.
Piley, J. (1889). Alloys of nickel and steel. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. I. pg. 45-55.
Pollack, Herman W. (1977). Materials science and metallurgy. Reston Publishing Co., Inc., Reston, VA.
Pruemmer, R.A., Balakrishna Bhat, T., Siva Kumar, K. and Hokamoto, K. (2006). Explosive compaction of powders and composites. Enfield: Science Publishers.
Raquenet, A., Ed. (2010). Artistry in iron: 183 designs, includes CD-ROM. Dover Publications, NY.
Read, T. T. (1934). Metallurgical fallacies in archaeological literatur. AJA. 38. pg. 382.
Richardson, H.C. (1934). Iron, prehistoric and ancient. AJA. 38(4). pg. 574.
Ricketts, J. A. (2001). History of Ironmaking. Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST), Warrendale, PA.
Ridge, I., Ed. (1998). Bloom refining and iron artefact production in the Roman world. British Archaeological Reports S725, Oxford, UK.
Robb, Frances C. (1993). Cast aside: The first cast-iron bridge in the United States. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 19(2). pg. 48-62.
Roberts, G.A., Hamaker, J.C., and Johnson, A.R. (1962). Tool steels. American Society for Metals, Cleveland, OH.
Sabadasz, Joel. (1992). The development of modern blast furnace practice: The Monongahela Valley furnaces of the Carnegie Steel Company, 1872-1913. IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 18(1/2). pg. 94-105.
Sauder, Lee. (July 1999). The basics of bloomery smelting. The Anvil’s Ring. pg. 1-6.
Sauveur, A. (1910). The metallography and heat treatment of iron and steel. Cambridge, MA.
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