Rosier's Relation of George Weymouth's 1605 Voyage

The following chapter is from: Ronald F. Banks, Ed., 1969, A History of Maine: A Collection of Readings on the History of Maine 1600 - 1974, Third Edition.
* Banks reproduced this from: George Parker Winship, 1905, Sailors Narratives of Voyages Along the New England Coast, 1524-1624. Houghton-Mifflin & Co., Boston, pg. 101-151.

Note that this version uses old English, which might seem a bit odd to today's reader.  Commonly in this text v is used for the modern u.  Many words are spelled differently.  The text has been scanned using OCR software and then edited, we apologize for any scanning errors we may have missed.


James Rosier accompanied George Weymouth to the coast of Maine in 1605. On returning to England, he wrote the following promotional account of his observations on the voyage.

James Rosier

1605 March

Vpon Tuesday the 5 day of March, about ten a clocke afore noone, we set saile from Ratcliffe, and came to an anker that tide about two a clocke before Grauesend.

From thence the 10 of March being Sunday at night we ankered in the Downes: and there rode til the next day about three a clocke after noone, when with a scant winde we set saile; and by reason the winde continued Southwardly, we were beaten vp and doune: but on Saturday the 16 day about foure a clocke after noon we put into Dartmouth Hauen, where the continuance of the winde at South & Southwest constrained vs to ride till the last of this moneth. There we shipped some of our men and supplied necessaries for our Ship and Voyage.

Upon Easter day, being the last of March, the winde comming at North-North-East, about fiue a clocke after noone we wayed anker, and put to sea.  In the name of God, being well victualled and furnished with munition and all necessaries: Our whole Company being but 29 persons; of whom I may boldly say, few voyages have beene manned forth with better Sea-men generally in respect of our small number.


Munday the next day, being the first of Aprill, by sixe a clocke in the morning we were sixe leagues South-South-East from the Lizarde.

At two a clocke in the afternoone this day, the weather being very faire, our Captaine for his owne experience and others with him sounded, and had sixe and fiftie fathoms and a halfe. The sounding was some small blacke perrie sand, some reddish sand, a match or two, with small shels called Saint James his Shels.

The foureteenth of Aprill being Sunday, betweene nine and ten of the clocke in the morning our Captaine descried the Iland Cueruo: which bare South-West and by West, about seuen leagues from vs: by eleuen of the clocke we descried Flores to the Southward of Cueruo, as it lieth: by foure a clocke in the afternoone we brought Cueruo due South from vs within two leagues of the shore, but we touched not, because the winde was faire, and we thought our selues sufficiently watered and wooded.

Heere our Captaine obserued the Sunne, and found himseife in the latitude of 40 degrees and 7 minutes: so he judged the North part of Cueruo to be in 40 degrees. After we had kept our course about a hundred leagues from theIlands, by continuall Southerly windes we were forced and driuen from the Southward, whither we first intended. And when our Captaine by long beating saw it was but in vaine to striue with windes, not knowing Gods purposes heerein to our further blessing, (which after by his especiall direction wee found) he thought best to stand as nigh as he could by the winde to recouer what land we might first discouer.


Munday, the 6 of May, being in the latitude of 39 and a haife about ten a clocke afore noone, we came to a riplin, which we discerned a head our ship, which is a breach of water caused either by a fall, or by some meeting of currents, which we judged this to be; for the weather being very faire, and a small gale of winde, we sounded and found no ground in a hundred fathoms.

Munday, the 13 of May, about eleuen a clocke afore noone, our Captaine, judging we were not farre from land, sounded, and had a soft oaze in a hundred and sixty fathomes. At fowre a clocke after noone we sounded againe, and had the same oaze in a hundred fathoms.

From ten a clocke that night till three a clocke in the morning, our Captaine tooke in all sailes and lay at hull, being desirous to fall with the land in the day time, because it was an unknowen coast, which it pleased God in his mercy to grant vs, otherwise we had run our ship vpon the hidden rockes and perished all. For when we set saile we sounded in 100 fathoms: and by eight a clock, hauing not made aboue flue or six leagues, our Captaine vpon a sudden change of water (supposing verily he saw the sand) presently sounded, and had but flue fathoms.

Sankaty Head

Much maruelling because we saw no land, he sent one to the top, who thence descried a whitish sandy cliffe, which bare West-North-West about six leagues off from vs al along the shore, into which before we should enter, our Captaine thought best to hoise out his ship boate and sound it. Which if he had not done, we had beene in great danger: for he bare vp the ship, as neere as he durst after the boate: vntill Thomas Cam, his mate, being in the boate, called to him to tacke about & stand off, for in this breach he had very showld water, two fathoms and lesse vpon rockes, and sometime they supposed they saw the rocke within three or fowre foote, whereon the sea made a very strong breach: which we might discerne (from the top) to run along as we sailed by it 6 or 7 leagues to the Southward. This was in the latitude of 41 degrees, 20 minuts: wherefore we were constrained to put backe againe from the land: and sounding, (the weather being very faire and a small winde) we found our selues embaied with continuall showldes and rockes in a most uncertaine ground, from flue or sixe fathoms, at the next cast of the lead we should haue 15 & 18 fathoms. Ouer many which we passed, and God so blessed vs, that we had wind and weather as faire as poore men in this distresse could wish: whereby we both perfectly discerned euery breach, and with the winde were able to turne, where we saw most hope of safest passage. Thus we parted from the land, which we had not so much before desired, and at the first sight rejoiced, as now we/all joifully praised God, that it had pleased him to deliuer vs from so imminent danger.

Heere we found great store of excellent Cod fish, and saw many Whales, as we had done two or three daies before.

We stood off all that night, and the next day being Wednesday; but the wind still continuing between the points of South-South-West, and West-South-West: so as we could not make any way to the Southward, in regard of our great want of water and wood (which was now spent) we much desired land and therefore sought for it, where the wind would best suffer vs to refresh our selues.

Thursday, the 16 of May, we stood in directly with the land, and much maruelled we descried it nog, wherein we found our sea charts very false, putting land where none is.

Friday, the 17 of May, about sixe a clocke at night we descried the land, which bare from vs North-North-East; but because it blew a great gale of winde, the sea very high and neere night, not fit to come vpon an vnknowen coast, we stood off till two a clocke in the morning, being Saturday: then standing in with it againe, we descried it by eight a clocke in the morning, bearing North-East from vs.


It appeared a meane high land, as we after found it, being but an Iland of some six miles in compasse, but I hope the most fortunate euer yet discouered. About twelve a clocke that day, we came to an anker on the North side of this Iland, about a league from the shore. About two a clocke our Captaine with twelve men rowed in his ship boat to the shore, where we made no long stay, but laded our boat with dry wood of olde trees vpon the shore side, and returned to our ship, where we rode that night.

This Iland is woody, growen with Firre, Birch, Oke and Beech, as farre as we say along the shore; and so likely to be within. On the verge grow Gooseberries, Strawberries, Wild pease, and Wilde rose bushes. The water issued foorth downe the Rocky cliffes in many places: and much fowie of diuers kinds breed vpon the shore and rocks.

While we were at shore, our men aboord with a few hooks got aboue thirty great Cods and Hadocks, which gaue vs a taste of the great plenty of fish which we found afterward wheresoeuer we went vpon the coast.

Camden Hills

From hence we might discerne the maine land from the West-South-West to the East-North-East, and a great way (as it then seemed, and as we after found it) vp into the maine we might discerne very high mountaines, though the maine seemed but low land; which gaue vs a hope it would please God to direct vs to the discouerie of some good; although wee were driuen by winds farre from that place, whither (both by our direction and desire) we euer intended to shape the course of our voyage.

The next day being Whit-Sunday; because we rode too much open to the sea and windes, we weyed anker about twelue a clocke, and came along to the other Ilands more adjoyning to the maine, and in the rode directly with the moun-taines, about three leagues from the first Iland where we had ankered.

St. George's Islands

When we came neere vnto them (sounding all along in a good depth) our Captaine manned his ship-boat and sent her before with Thomas Cam one of his Mates, whom he knew to be of good experience, to sound & search betweene the Ilands for a place safe for our shippe to ride in; in the meane while we kept aloofe at sea, hauing giuen them in the boat a token to weffe in the ship, if he found a conuenient Harbour; which it pleased God to send vs, farre beyond our expectation, in a most safe birth defended from all windes, in an excellent depth of water for ships of any burthen, in six, seuen, eight, nine and ten fathoms vpon a clay oaze very tough.

We all with great joy praised God for his vnspeakable goodnesse, who had from so apparent danger deliuered vs, & directed vs vpon this day into so secure an Harbour: in remembrance whereof we named it Pentecost harbor, we arriuing there that day out of our last Harbor in England, from whence we set saile vpon Easterday.

About foure a clocke, after we were ankered and well mored, our Captaine with haife a dozen of our Company went on shore to seeke fresh watering, and a conuenient place to set together a pinnesse, which we brought in pieces out of England; both which we found very fitting.

Vpon this Iland, as also vpon the former, we found (at our first comming to shore) where fire had beene made: and about the place were very great egge shells bigger than goose egges, fish bones, and as we judged, the bones of some beast.

Here we espied Cranes stalking on the shore of a little Iland adjoyning; where we after saw they vsed to breed.

Whitsun-munday, the 20 day of May, very early in the morning, our Captaine caused the pieces of the pinnesse to be carried a shore, where while some were busied about her, others digged welles to receiue the fresh water, which we found issuing downe out of the land in many places. Heere I cannot omit (for foolish feare of imputation of flattery) the painfull industry of our Captaine, who as at sea he is alwayes most carefull and vigilant, so at land he refuseth no paines; but his labour was euer as much or rather more than any mans: which not only encourageth others with better content, but also effecteth much with great expedition.

In digging we found excellent clay for bricke or tile.

The next day we finished a well of good and holesome cleere water in a great empty caske, which we left there. We cut yards, waste trees, and many necessaries for our ship, while our Carpenter and Cooper laboured to fit and furnish forth the shallop.

This day our boat went out about a mile from our ship, and in small time with two or three hooks was fished sufficiently for our whole Company three dayes, with great Cod, Haddocke, and Thornebacke.

And towards night we drew with a small net of twenty fathoms very nigh the shore: we got about thirty very good and great Lobsters, many Rockfish, some Plaise, and other small fishes, and fishes called Lumpes, verie pleasant to the taste: and we generally obserued, that all the fish, of what kinde soeuer we tooke, were well fed, fat, and sweet in taste.

Wednesday, the 22 of May, we felled and cut wood for our ships vse, cleansed and scoured our wels, and digged a plot of ground, wherein, amongst some garden seeds, we sowed peaze and barley, which in sixteen dayes grew eight inches aboue ground; and so continued growing euery day haife an inch, although this was but the crust of the ground, and much inferior to the mould we after found in the maine.

Friday, the 24 of May, after we had made an end of cutting wood, and carying water aboord our shippe, with fourteene Shot and Pikes we marched about and thorow part of two of the Ilands; the bigger of which we judged to be foure or flue miles in compasse, and a mile broad.

The profits and fruits which are naturally on these Ilands are these:

All along the shore
and some space within,
where the wood hin-
dereth not, grow plenti- 
Within the Ilands
growe wood of sundry
sorts, some very great,
 and all tall:


Oke very great and good
Firre-tree, out of which issueth

Turpentine in so maruellous plenty, and so sweet, as our Chirurgeon and others affirmed they neuer saw so good in England. We pulled off much Gumme congealed on the outside of the barke, which smelted like Frankincense. This would be a great benefit for making Tarre and Pitch.

We stayed the longer in this place, not only because of our good Harbour (which is an excellent comfort) but because euery day we did more and more discouer the pleasant fruitfulnesse; insomuch as many of our Companie wished themselues setled heere, not expecting any further hopes, or better discouery to be made.

Heere our men found abundance of great muscels among the rocks; and in some of them many small Pearls: and in one muscell (which we drew vp in our net) was found foureteene Pearles, whereof one of prety bignesse and orient; in another aboue fiftie small Pearles; and if we had had a Drag, no doubt we had found some of great valew, seeing these did certainly shew, that heere they were bred: the shels all glistering with mother of Pearle.

Wednesday, the 29 day, our shallop being now finished, and our Captaine and men furnished to depart with hir from the ship: we set vp a crosse on the shore side vpon the rockes.

Thursday, the 30 of May, about ten a clock afore noon, our Captaine with 13 men more, in the name of God, and with all our praters for then-prosperous discouerie, and safe returne, departed in the shallop: leauing the ship in a good harbour, which before I mentioned, well mored, and manned with 14 men.

This day, about flue a clocke in the afternoone, we in the shippe espied three Canoas comming towards vs, which went to the iland adjoining, where they went a shore, and very quickly had made a fire, about which they stood beholding our ship: to whom we made signes with our hands and hats, weffing vnto them to come vnto vs, because we had not seene any of the people yet. They sent one Canoa with three men, one of which, when they came neere vnto vs, spake in his language very lowd and very boldly: seeming as though he would know why we were there, and by pointing with his oare towards the sea, we conjectured he ment we should be gone. But when we shewed them kniues and their vse, by cutting of stickes and other trifles, as combs and glasses, they came close aboard our ship, as desirous to entertaine our friendship. To these we gaue such things as we perceiued they liked, when wee shewed them the vse: bracelets, rings, peacocke feathers, which they stucke in their haire, and Tabacco pipes. After their departure to their company on the shore, presently came foure other in another Canoa: to whom we gaue as to the former, vsing them with as much kindnes as we could.

The shape of their body is very proportionable, they are wel countenanced, not very tal nor big, but in stature like to vs: they paint their bodies with blacke, their faces, some with red, some with blacke, and some with blew.

Their clothing is Beauers skins, or Deares skins, cast ouer them like a mantle, and hanging downe to their knees, made fast together vpon the shoulder with leather; some of them had sleeues, most had none; some had buskins of such leather tewed: they haue besides a peece of Beauers skin betweene their legs, made fast about their waste, to couer their priuities.

They suffer no haire to grow on their faces, but on their head very long and very blacke, which those that haue wiues, binde vp behinde with a leather string, in a long round knot.

They seemed all very ciuill and merrie: shewing tokens of much thankefulnesse, for those things we gaue them. We found them then (as after) a people of exceeding good inuention, quicke vnderstanding and readie capacitie.

Their Canoas are made without any iron, of the bark of a birch tree, strengthened within with ribs and hoops of wood, in so good fashion, with such excellent ingenious art, as they are able to beare seuen or eight persons, far exceeding any in the Indies.

One of their Canoas came not to vs, wherein we imagined their women were: of whom they are (as all Saluages) very jealous.

When I signed unto them they should goe sleepe, because it was night, they vnderstood presently, and pointed that at the shore, right against our ship, they would stay all night: as they did.

The next morning very early, came one Canoa abord vs againe with three Saluages, whom we easily then enticed into our ship, and vnder the decke: where we gaue them porke, fish, bred and pease, all which they did eat; and this I noted, they would eat nothing raw, either fish or flesh. They maruelled much and much looked vpon the making of our canne and kettle, so they did at a head-peece and at our guns, of which they are most fearefull, and would fall flat downe at the report of them. At their departure I signed vnto them, that if they would bring me such skins as they ware I would giue them kniues, and such things as I saw they most liked, which the chiefe of them promised to do by that time the Sunne should be beyond the middest of the firmament; this I did to bring them to an vnderstanding of exchange, and that they might conceiue the intent of our comming to them to be for no other end.

About 10 a clocke this day we descried our Shallop returning toward vs, which so soone as we espied, we certainly conjectured our Captaine had found some vnexpected harbour, further vp towards the maine to bring the ship into, or some riuer; knowing his determination and resolution, not so suddenly else to make return: which when they came neerer they expressed by shooting volleies of shot; and when they were come within Musket shot, they gaue vs a volley and haled vs, then we in the shippe gaue them a great peece and haled them.

Thus we welcomed them; who gladded vs exceedingly with their joifull relation of their happie discouerie, which shall appeare in the sequele. And we likewise gaue them cause of mutuall joy with vs, in discoursing of the kinde ciuility we found in a people, where we little expected any sparke of humanity.

St. George's River

Our Captaine had in this small time discouered vp a great riuer, trending alongst into the maine about forty miles. The pleasantnesse whereof, with the safety of harbour for shipping, together with the fertility of ground and other fruits, which were generally by his whole company related, I omit, till I report of the whole discouery therein after performed. For by the bredth, depth and strong flood, imagining it to run far vp into the land, he with speed returned, intending to flanke his light horsman for arrowes, least it might happen that the further part of the riuer should be narrow, and by that meanes subject to the volley of Saluages on either side out of the woods.

Vntill his returne, our Captaine left on shore where he landed in a path (which seemed to be frequented) a pipe, a brooch and a knife, thereby to know if the Saluages had recourse that way, because they could at that time see none of them, but they were taken away before our returne thither.

I returne now to our Saluages, who according to their appointment about one a clocke, came with 4 Canoas to the shoare of the iland right ouer against vs, where they had lodged the last night, and sent one Canoa to vs with two of those Saluages, who had beene a bord, and another, who then seemed to haue command of them; for though we perceiued their willingnesse, yet he would not permit them to come abord; but he hauing viewed vs and our ship, signed that he would go to the rest of the company and returne againe. Presently after their departure it began to raine, and continued all that afternoone, so as they could not come to vs with their skins and furs, nor we go to them. But after an howre or there about, the three which had beene with vs before came againe, whom we had to our fire and couered them with our gownes. Our Captaine bestowed a shirt vpon him, whom we thought to be their chiefe, who seemed neuer to haue seene any before we gaue him a brooch to hang about his necke, a great knife, and lesser kniues to the two other, and to euery one of them a combe and glasse, the vse whereof we shewed them: whereat they laughed and tooke gladly; we victualled them, and gaue them aqua vitae, which they tasted, but would by no meanes drinke; our beueridge they liked well, we gaue them Sugar Candy, which after they had tasted they liked and desired more, and raisons which were giuen them; and some of euery thing they would reserue to carry to their company. Wherefore we pittying their being in the raine, and therefore not able to get themselues victuall (as we thought) we gaue them bread and fish.

Thus because we found the land a place answereable to the intent of our discouery, for any nation to inhabit, we vsed the people with as great kindnes as we could deuise, or found them capable of.

The next day, being Saturday and the first of June, I traded with the Saluages all the fore noone vpon the shore, where were eight and twenty of them: and because our ship rode nigh, we were but fiue or sixe: where for kniues, glasses, combes and other trifles to the valew of foure or fiue shillings, we had 40 good Beauers skins, Otters skins. Sables, and other small skins, which we knewe not how to call. Our trade being ended, many of them came abord vs, and did eat by our fire, and would be verie merrie and bold, in regard of our kinde vsage of them. Towards night our Captaine went on shore, to haue a draught with the Sein or Net. And we carried two of them with vs, who maruelled to see vs catch fish with a net. Most of that we caught we gaue them and their company. Then on the shore I learned the names of diuers things of them: and when they perceiued me to note them downe, they would ofthemselues, fetch fishes, and fruit bushes, and stand by me to see me write their names.

Our Captaine shewed them a strange thing which they soondred at. His sword and mine hauing beene touched with the Loadstone, tooke vp a knife, and held it fast when they plucked it away, made the knife turne, being laid on a blocke, and touching it with his sword, made that take vp a needle, whereat they much maruelled. This we did to cause them to imagine some great power in vs: and for that to loue and feare vs.

When we went on shore to trade with them, in one of their Canoas I saw their bowes and arrowes, which I tooke vp and drew an arrow in one of them, which I found to be of strength able to carry an arrow fiue or sixe score stronglie; and one of them tooke it and drew as we draw our bowes, not like the Indians. Their bow is made ofWich Hazell, and some of Beech in fashion much like our howes, but they want nocks, onely a string of leather put through a hole at one end, and made fast with a knot at the other. Their arrowes are made of the same wood, some of Ash, big and long, with three feathers tied on, and nocked very artificiallie: headed with the long shanke bone of a Deere, made very sharpe with two fangs in manner of a harping iron. They haue likewise Darts, headed with like bone, one of which I darted among the rockes, and it brake not. These they vse very cunningly, to kill fish, fowie and beasts.

Our Captaine had two of them at supper with vs in his cabbin to see their demeanure, and had them in presence at seruice: who behaued themselues very ciuilly, neither laughing nor talking all the time, and at supper fed not like men of rude education, neither would they eat or drinke more than seemed to content nature; they desired pease to carry a shore to their women, which we gaue them, with fish and bread, and lent them pewter dishes, which they carefully brought againe.

In the evening another boat came to them on the shore, and because they had some Tabacco, which they brought for their owne vse, the other came for vs, making signe what they had, and offered to carry some ofvs in their boat, but foure or fiue of vs went with them in our owne boat: when we came on shore they gaue vs the best welcome they could, spreading fallow Deeres skins for vs to sit on the ground by their fire, and gaue vs of their Tabacco in our pipes, which was excellent, and so generally commended ofvs all to be as good as any we euer tooke, being the simple leafe without any composition, strong, and of sweet taste; the simple leafe without any composition, strong, and of sweet taste; they gaue us some to carry to our Captaine, whom they called our Bashabes; neither did they require any thing for it, but we would not receiue any thing from them without remuneration.

Heere we saw foure of their women, who stood behind them, as desirous to see vs, but not willing to be seene; for before, whensoeuer we came on shqre, they retired into the woods, whether it were in regard of their owne naturall modestie, being couered only as the men with the foresaid Beauers skins, or by the commanding jealousy of their husbands, which we rather suspected, because it is an inclination much noted to be in Saluages; wherefore we would by no meanes seeme to take any speciall notice of them. They were very well fauoured in proportion of countenance, though coloured blacke, low of stature, and fat, bare headed as the men, wearing their haire long: they had two little male children of a yeere and half old, as we judged, very fat and of good countenances, which they loue tenderly, all naked, except their legs, which were couered with thin leather buskins tewed, fastened with strops to a girdle about their waste, which they girde very streight, and is decked round about with little round peeces of red Copper; to these I gaue chaines and bracelets, glasses, and other trifles, which the Saluages seemed to accept in great kindnesse.

At our comming away, we would haue had those two that supped with vs, to go abord and sleepe, as they had promised; but it appeared their company would not suffer them. Whereat we might easily perceiue they were much greeued; but not long after our departure, they came with three more to our ship, signing to vs, that if one of our company would go lie on shore with them, they would stay with vs. Then Owen Griffin (one of the two we were to leaue in the Country, if we had thought it needfull or conuenient) went with them in their Canoa, and 3 of them stated aborde vs, whom our whole company very kindly vsed. Our Captaine saw their lodging prouided, and them lodged in an old saile vpon the Orlop; and because they much feared our dogs, they were tied vp whensoeuer any of them came abord vs.


Owen Griffin, which lay on the shore, reported vnto me their maner, and (as I may terme them) the ceremonies of their idolatry; which they performe thus. One among them (the eldest of the Company, as he judged) riseth right vp, the other sitting still, and looking about, suddenly cried with a loud voice, Baugh, Waugh: then the women fall downe, and lie vpon the ground, and the men all together answering the same, fall a stamping round about the fire with both feet, as hard as they can, making the ground shake, with sundry out-cries, and change of voice and sound. Many take the fire-sticks and thrust them into the earth, and then rest awhile: of a sudden beginning as before, they continue so stamping, till the yonger sort fetched from the shore many stones, of which euery man tooke one, and first beat vpon them with their fire-sticks, then with the stones beat the earth with all their strength. And in this maner (as he reported) they continued aboue two houres.

After this ended, they which haue wiues take them apart, and withdraw themselues seuerally into the wood all night.

The next morning, assoone as they saw the Sunne rise, they pointed to him to come with them to our shippe: and hauing receiued their men from vs, they came with fiue or sixe of their Canoas and Company houering about our ship; to whom (because it was the Sabbath day) I signed they should depart, and at the next Sun rising we would goe along with them to their houses; which they vnderstood (as we thought) and departed, some of their Canoas coursing about the Iland, and the other directly towards the maine.

This day, about fiue a clocke after noone, came three other Canoas from the maine, of which some had beene with vs before; and they came aboord vs, and brought vs Tabacco, which we tooke with them in their pipes, which were made of earth, very strong, blacke, and short containing a great quantity: some Tabacco they gaue vnto our Captaine, and some to me, in very ciuill kind maner.  We requited them with bread and peaze, which they caried to their Company on shore, seeming very thankefull. After supper they returned with their Canoa to fetch vs a shore to take Tabacco with them there: with whom six or seuen of vs went, and carted some trifles, if peradventure they had any trucke, among which I carted some few biskets, to try if they would exchange for them, seeing they so well liked to eat them. When we came at shore, they most kindly entertained vs, taking vs by the hands, as they had obserued we did to them aboord, in token of welcome, and brought vs to sit downe by their fire, where sat together thirteene of them. They filled their Tabacco pipe, which was then the short claw of a Lobster, which will hold ten of our pipes full, and we dranke of their excellent Tabacco as much as we would with them; but we saw not any great quantity to trucke for; and it seemed they had not much left of old, for they spend a great quantity yeerely by their continuall drinking: and they would signe vnto vs, that it was growen yet but a foot aboue ground, and would be aboue a yard high, with a leafe as broad as both their hands.  They often would (by pointing to one part of the maine Eastward) signe vnto vs, that their Bashabes (that is, their King) had great plenty of Furres, and much Tabacco. When we had sufficiently taken Tabacco with them, I shewed some of our trifles for trade; but they made signe that they had there nothing to exchange; for (as I after conceiued) they had beene fishing and fowling, and so came thither to lodge that night by vs: for when we were ready to come away, they shewed vs great cups made very wittily ofbarke, in forme almost square, full of a red berry about the bignesse of a bullis,' which they did eat, and gaue vs by handfuls; of which (though I liked not the taste) yet I kept some, because I would by no meanes but accept their kindnesse.


They shewed me likewise a great piece of fish, whereof I tasted, and it was fat like Porpoise; and another kinde of great scaly fish, broiled on the coales, much like white Salmon, which the Frenchmen call Aloza, for these they would haue had bread; which I refused, because in maner of exchange, I would alwayes make the greatest esteeme I could of our commodities whatsoeuer; although they saw aboord our Captaine was liberall to giue them, to the end we might allure them still to frequent vs. Then they shewed me foure yoong Goslings, for which they required foure biskets, but I offered them two; which they tooke and were well content.

At our departure they made signe, that if any of vs would stay there on shore, some of them would go lie aboord vs: at which motion two of our Company stayed with them, and three of the Saluages lodged with vs in maner as the night before.

Early the next morning, being Munday the third of June, when they had brought our men aboord, they came about our ship, earnestly by signes desiring that we would go with them along to the maine, for that there they had Furres and Tabacco to traffique with vs. Wherefore our Captaine manned the lighthorseman with as many men as he could well, which were about fifteene with rowers and all; and we went along with them. Two of their Canoas they sent away before, and they which lay aboord vs all night, kept company with vs to direct vs.

This we noted as we went along, they in their Canoa with three oares, would at their will go ahead of vs and about vs, when we rowed with eight oares strong; such was their swiftnesse, by reason of the lightnesse and artificiall composition of their Canoa and oares.


When we came neere the point where we saw their fires, where they intended to land, and where they imagined some few of vs would come on shore with our merchandize, as we had accustomed before; when they had often numbred our men very diligently, they scoured away to their Company, not doubting we would haue followed them. But when we perceiued this, and knew not either their intents, or number of Saluages on the shore, our Captaine, after consultation, stood off, and wetted them to vs, determining that I should go on shore first to take a view of them, and what they had to traffique: if he, whom at our first sight of them seemed to be of most respect among them, and being then in the Canoa, would stay as a pawne for me. When they came to vs (notwithstanding all our former courtesies) he vtterly refused; but would leaue a yoong Saluage: and for him our Captaine sent Griffin in their Canoa, while we lay hulling a little off. Griffin at his returne reported, thay had there assembled together, as he numbred them, two hundred eighty three Saluages, euery one his bowe and arrowes, with their dogges, and wolues which they keepe tame at command, and not anything to exchange at all; but would haue drawen vs further vp into a little narrow nooke of a riuer, for their Furres, as they pretended.

These things considered, we began to joyne them in the ranke of other Saluages, who haue beene by trauellers in most discoueries found very trecherous; neuer attempting mischiefe, vntill by some remisnesse, fit opportunity affoordeth them certaine ability to execute the same. Wherefore after good advice taken, we determined so soone as we could to take some of them, least (being suspitious we had discouered their plots) they should absent themselues from vs.

Tuesday, the fourth of June, our men tooke Cod and Hadocke with hooks by our ship side, and Lobsters very great; which before we had not tried.

About eight a clocke this day we went on shore with our boats, to fetch aboord water and wood, our Captaine leauing word with the Gunner in the shippe, by discharging a musket, to giue notice if they espied any Canoa comming; which they did about ten a clocke. He therefore being carefull they should be kindly entreated, requested me to go aboord, intending with dispatch to make what haste after he possibly could. When I came to the ship, there were two Canoas, and in either of them three Saluages; of whom two were below at the fire, the other stated in their Canoas about the ship; and because we could not entice them abord, we gaue them a Canne of pease and bread, which they carried to the shore to eat. But one of them brought backe our Canne presently and staid abord with the other two; for he being yoong, of a ready capacity, and one we most desired to bring with vs into England, had receiued exceeding kinde vsage at our hands, and was therefore much delighted in our company. When our Captaine was come, we consulted how to catch the other three at shore which we performed thus.

We manned the light horseman with 7 or 8 men, one standing before carried our box of Marchan-dise, as we were woont when I went to traffique with them, and a platter of pease, which meat they loued: but before we were landed, one of them (being too suspitiously feareful of his owne good) withdrew himseife into the wood. The other two met vs on the shore side, to receiue the pease, with whom we went vp the Cliffe to their fire and sate downe with them, and whiles we were discussing how to catch the third man who was gone, I opened the box, and shewed them trifles to exchange, thinking thereby to haue banisht feare from the other, and drawen him to returne: but when we could not, we vsed little delay, but suddenly laid hands vpon them. And it was as much as fiue or sixe of vs could doe to get them into the light horseman. For they were strong and so naked as our best hold was by their long haire on their heads; and we would haue beene very loath to haue done them any hurt, which of necessity we had beene constrained to haue done if we had attempted them in a multitude, which we must and would, rather than haue wanted them, being a matter of great importance for the full accomplement of our voyage.

Thus we shipped fiue Saluages, two Canoas, with all their bowes and arrowes.

The next day we made an end of getting our wood aboord, and filled our empty caske with water.

Tuesday, the 6 of June, we spent in bestowing the Canoas vpon the orlop safe from hurt, because they were subject to breaking, which our Captaine was care full to preuent.

Saturday the eight of June (our Captaine being desirous to finish all businesse about this harbour) very early in the morning, with the light horseman, coasted fiue or sixe leagues about the Ilands adjoining, and sounded all along wheresoeuer we went. He likewise diligently searched the mouth of the Harbour, and about the rocks which shew themselues at all times, and are an excellent breach of the water, so as no Sea can come in to offend the Harbour. This he did to instruct himseife, and thereby able to direct others that shall happen to come to this place. For euery where both neere the rocks, & in all soundings about the Ilands, we neuer found lesse water than foure and fiue fathoms, which was seldome; but seuen, eight, nine and ten fathoms is the continuall sounding by the shore. In some places much deeper vpon clay oaze or soft sand: so that if any bound for this place, should be either driuen or scanted with winds, he shall be able (with his directions) to recouer safely his harbour most securely in water enough by foure seuerall passages, more than which I thinke no man of judgement will desire as necessarie.

Vpon one of the Ilands (because it had a pleasant sandy Coue for small barks to ride in) we landed, and found hard by the shore a pond of fresh water, which flowed ouer the banks, somewhat ouer growen with little shrub trees, and searching vp in the Iland, we saw it fed with a strong run, which with small labour, and little time, might be made to driue a mill. In this Iland, as in the other, were spruce trees of excellent timber and height, able to mast ships of great burthen.

While we thus sounded from one place to another in so good deepes, our Captaine to make some triall of the fishing himseife, caused a hooke or two to be cast out at the mouth of the harbour, not aboue haife a league from our ship, where in small time only, with the baits which they cut from the fish and three hooks, we got fish enough for our whole Company (though now augmented) for three daies. Which I omit not to report, because it sheweth how great a profit the fishing would be, they being so plentifull, so great, and so good, with such conuenient drying as can be wished, neere at hand vpon the Rocks.

This day, about one a clocke after noone, came from the Eastward two Canoas abord vs, wherein was he that refused to stay with vs for a pawne, and with him six other Saluages which we had not seene before who had beautified themselues after their manner very gallantly, though their clothing was not differing from the former, yet they had newly painted their faces very deep, some all blacke, some red, with stripes of excellent blew ouer their vpper lips, nose and chin. One of them ware a kinde of Coronet about his head, made very cunningly, of a substance like stiffe haire coloured red, broad, and more than a handfull in depth, which we imagined to be some ensigne of his superiorities for he so much esteemed it as he would not for any thing exchange the same. Other ware the white feathered skins of some fowie, round about their head, jewels in their ears, and bracelets of little white round bone, fastned together vpon a leather string. These made not any shew that they had notice of the other before taken, but we vnderstood them by their speech and signes, that they came sent from the Bashabes, and that his desire was that we would bring vp our ship (which they call as their owne boats, a Quiden) to his house, being, as they pointed, vpon the main towards the East, from whence they came, and that he would exchange with vs for Furres and Tabacco. But because our Company was but small and now our desire was with speed to discouer vp the river, we let them vnderstand, that if their Bashabes would come to vs, he should be welcome but we would not remoue to him. Which when they vnderstood (receiuing of vs bread and fish and euery of them a knife) they departed; for we had then no will to stay them long abord, least they should discouer the other Saluages which we had stowed below.

Tuesday, the 11 of June, we passed vp into the nuer with our ship, about six and twenty miles Of which I had rather not write, then by my relation to detract from the worthinesse thereof. For the Riuer, besides that it is subject by shipping to bring in all traffiques of Marchandise, a benefit alwaies accounted the richest treasury to any land: for which cause our Thames hath that due denomination, and France by her nauigable Riuers receiueth hir greatest wealth; yet this place of it selfe from
God and nature affoordeth as much diuersitie of good commodities, as any reasonable man can wish, for present habitation and planting.

The first and chiefest thing required, is a bold coast and faire land to fall with; the next, a safe harbour for ships to ride in.


The first is a speciall attribute to this shore being most free from sands or dangerous rocks in a continuall good depth, with a most excellent land-fall, which is the first Iland we fell with named by vs, Saint Georges Iland. For the second, by judgement of our Captaine, who knoweth most ot the coast of England, and most of other Countries, (hauing beene experienced by imployments in discoueries and trauels from his childhood) and by opinion of others of good judgement in our shippe, heere are more good harbours for ships of all burthens, than England can affoord and far more secure from all winds and weathers than any in England, Scotland, France or Spaine.  For besides without the Riuer in the channell, and sounds about the ilands adjoining to the mouth thereof, no better riding can be desired for an infinite number of ships. The Riuer it seife as it runneth vp into the main very nigh forty miles toward the great mountaines, beareth in bredth a mile, sometime three quarters, and haife a mile is the narrowest, where you shall neuer haue vnder 4 and 5 fathoms water hard by the shore, but 6,7,8, 9, and 10 fathoms all along, and on both sides euery haife mile very gallant Coues, some able to conteine almost a hundred saile, where the ground is excellent soft oaze with a tough clay vnder for anker hold, and where ships may ly without either Cable or Anker, only mored to the shore with a Hauser.

It floweth by their judgement eighteen or twenty foot at high water.

Heere are made by nature most excellent places, as Docks to graue or Carine ships of all burthens; secured from all windes, which is such a necessary imcomparable benefit, that in few places in England, or in any parts of Christendome, art, with great charges, can make the like.

Besides, the bordering land is a most rich neighbour trending all along on both sides, in an equall plaine, neither mountainous nor rocky, but verged with a greene bordure of grasse, doth make tender vnto the beholder of hir pleasant fertility, if by clensing away the woods she were conuerted into meddow.

The wood she beareth is not shrubbish fit only for fewell, but goodly tall Firre, Spruce, Birch, Beech, Oke, which in many places is not so thicke, but may with small labour be made feeding ground, being plentifull like the outward Ilands with fresh water, which streameth downe in many places.

As we passed with a gentle winde vp with our ship in this Riuer, any man may conceiue with what admiration we all consented in joy. Many of our Company who had beene trauellers in sundry countries, and in the most famous Riuers, yet affirmed them not comparable to this they now beheld. Some that were with Sir Walter Ralegh in his voyage to Guiana, in the discouery of the Riuer Orenoque, which echoed fame to the worlds eares, gaue reasons why it was not to be compared with this, which wanteth the dangers of many Shoules, and broken ground, wherewith that was incombred. Others before that notable Riuer in the West Indies called Rio Grande; some before the Riuer of Loyer, the Riuer Seine, and of Burdeaux in France, which although they be great and goodly Riuers, yet it is no detraction from them to be accounted inferiour to this, which not only yeeldeth all the foresaid pleasant profits, but also appeared infallibly to vs free from all inconueniences.

I will not prefer it before our riuer of Thames, because it is Englands richest treasure; but we all did wish those excellent Harbours, good deeps in a continuall conuenient bredth, and small tide-gates, to be as well therein for our countries good, as we found the here (beyond our hopes) in certaine, for those to whom it shall please God to grant this land for habitation; which if it had, with the other inseparable adherent commodities here to be found; then I would boldly affirme it to be the most rich, beautiful, large & secure harbouring riuer that the world affoordeth.

A bend or narrow/portion

Wednesday, the twelfth of June, our Captaine manned his light-horseman with 17 men, and ranne vp from the ship riding in the riuer vp to the codde thereof, where we landed, leauing six to keepe the light-horseman till our returne. Ten of vs with our shot, and some armed, with a boy to carry powder and match, marched vp into the countrey towards the mountaines, which we descried at our first falling with the land.

Camden Hills

Vnto some of them the riuer brought vs so neere, as we judged our selues when we landed to haue beene within a league of them? but we marched vp about foure miles in the maine, and passed ouer three hilles: and because the weather was parching hot, and our men in their armour not able to trauel farre and returne that night to our ship, we resolued not to passe any further, being all very weary of so tedious and laboursom a trauell.

In this march we passed ouer very good ground, pleasant and fertile, fit for pasture, for the space of some three miles, hauing but little wood, and that Oke like stands left in our pastures in England, good and great, fit timber for any vse. Some small Birch, Hazle and Brake, which might in small time with few men be cleansed and made good arable land: but as it now is will feed cattell of all kindes with fodder enough for Summer and Winter. The soile is blacke, bearing sundry hearbs, grasse, and strawberries bigger than ours in England. In many places are lowe Thicks like our Copisses of small yoong wood. And surely it did all resemble a stately Parke, wherein appeare some old trees with high withered tops, and other flourishing with liuing greene boughs. Vpon the hilles grow notable high timber trees, masts for ships of 400 tun: and at the bottome of euery hill, a little run of fresh water; but the furthest and last we passed, ranne with a great streame able to driue a mill.

We might see in some places where fallow Deere and Hares had beene, and by the rooging of ground we supposed wilde Hogs had ranged there, but we could descrie no beast, because our noise still chased them from vs.

We were no sooner come aboord our lighthorseman, returning towards our ship, but we espied a Canoa comming from the further part of the Cod of the riuer Eastward, which hasted to vs; wherein, with two others, was he who refused to stay for a pawne: and his comming was very earnestly importing to haue one of our men to go lie on shore with their Bashabes (who was there on shore, as they signed) and then the next morning he would come to our ship with many Furres and Tabacco. This we perceiued to be only a meere deuice to get possession of any of our men, to ransome all those which we had taken, which their naturall policy could not so shadow, but we did easily discouer and preuent. These meanes were by this Saluage practised, because we had one of his kinsemen prisoner, as we judged by his most kinde vsage of him being aboord vs together.


Thursday, the 13 of June, by two a clocke in the morning (because our Captaine would take the heipe and aduantage of the tide) in the lighthorseman with our Company well prouided and furnished with armour and shot both to defend and offend; we went from our ship vp to that part of the riuer which trended Westward into the maine, to search that: and we carried with vs a Crosse, to erect at that point, which (because it was not daylight) we left on the shore vntill our returne backe; when we set it vp in maner as the former. For this (by the way) we diligently obserued, that in no place, either about the Ilands, or vp in the maine, or alongst the riuer, we could discerne any token or signe, that euer any Christian had beene before; of which either by cutting wood, digging for water, or setting vp Crosses (a thing neuer omitted by any Christian traueUers) we should haue perceiued some mention left.

But to returne to our riuer, further vp into which we then rowed by estimation twenty miles, the beauty and goodnesse whereof I can not by relation sufficiently demonstrate. That which I can say in generall is this: What profit or pleasure soeuer is described and truly verified in the former part of the riuer, is wholly doubled in this; for the bredth and depth is such, that any ship drawing 17 or 18 foot water, might haue passed as farre as we went with our light-horsman, and by all our mens judgement much further, because we left it in so good depth and bredth; which is so much the more to be esteemed of greater woorth, by how much it trendeth further vp into the maine: for from the place of our ships riding in the Harbour at the entrance into the Sound, to the furthest part we were in this riuer, by our estimation was not much lesse than threescore miles.

From ech banke of this riuer are diuers branch-ing streames into the maine, wherby is affoorded an vnspeakable profit by the conueniency of transportation from place to place, which in some countries is both chargeable; and not so fit, by canages on waine, or horse backe.

Heere we saw great store of fish, some great, leaping aboue water, which we judged to be Salmons. All along is an excellent mould of ground. The wood in most places, especially on the East side, very thinne, chiefly oke and some small young birch, bordering low vpon the riuer; all fit for medow and pasture ground: and in that space we went, we had on both sides the riuer many plaine plots of medow, some of three or foure acres, some of eight or nine: so as we judged in the whole to be betweene thirty and forty acres of good grasse, and where the armes run out into the Maine, there likewise went a space on both sides of cleere grasse, how far we know not, in many places we might see paths made to come downe to the watering.

The excellencie of this part of the Riuer, for his good breadth, depth, and fertile bordering ground did so ravish vs all with variety of pleasantnesse as we could not tell what to commend, but only admired; some compared it to the Riuer Seuerne, (but in a higher degree) and we all concluded as I verily thinke we might rightly) that we should neuer see the like Riuer in every degree equall, vntill it pleased God we beheld the same againe. For the farther we went, the more pleasing it was to euery man, alluring vs still with expectation of better, so as our men, although they had with great labour rowed long and eat nothing (for we carried with vs no victuall, but a little cheese and bread) yet they were so refreshed with the pleasant beholding thereof, and so loath to forsake it, as some of them affirmed, they would haue continued willingly with that onely fare and labour 2 dates; but the tide not suffering vs to make any longer stay (because we were to come backe with the tide) and our Captaine better knowing what was fit then we, and better what they in labour were able to endure, being verie loath to make any desperate hazard, where so little necessitie required, thought it best to make returne, because whither we had discouered was sufficient to conceiue that the Riuer ran very far into the land. For we passed six or seuen miles, altogether fresh water (whereof we all dranke) forced vp by the flowing of the Salt: which after a great while eb, where we left it, by breadth of channell and depth of water was likely to run by estimation of our whole company an unknowen way farther: the search whereof our Captaine hath left till his returne, if it shall so please God to dispose of him and vs.

For we hauing now by the direction of the omnipotent disposer of all good intents (far beyond the period of our hopes) fallen with so bold a coast, found so excellent and secure harbour, for as many ships as any nation professing Christ is able to set forth to Sea, discouered a Riuer, which the All-creating God, with his most liberall hand, hath made aboue report notable with his foresaid blessings, bordered with a land, whose pleasant fertility bewraieth it seife to be the garden of nature, wherin she only intended to delight hir seife, hauing hitherto obscured it to any, except to a purblind generation, whose vnderstanding it hath pleased God so to darken, as they can neither discerne, vse, or rightly esteeme the vnualuable riches in middest whereof they live sensually content with the barke and outward rinds, as neither knowing the sweetnes of the inward marrow, nor acknowledging the Deity of the Almighty giuer: hauing I say thus far proceeded, and hauing some of the inhabitant nation (of best vnderstanding we saw among them) who (learning our language) may be able to giue vs further instruction, concerning all the premised particulars, as also of their gouernours, and gouernment, situation of townes, and what else shall be conuenient, which by no meanes otherwise we could by any obseruation of our selues learne in a long time: our Captaine now wholy intended his prouision for speedy returne. For although the time of yeere and our victuall were not so spent, but we could haue made a longer voyage, in searching farther and trading for very good commodities, yet as they might haue beene much profitable, so (our company being small) much more preiudiciall to the whole state of our voyage, which we were most regardfull now not to hazard. For we supposing not a little present priuate profit, but a publique good, and true zeale of promulgating Gods holy Church, by planting Christianity, to be the sole intent of the Honourable setters foorth of this discouery; thought it generally most expedient, by our speedy returne, to giue the longer space of time to make prouision for so weighty an enterprise.

Friday, the 14 day of June, early by foure a clocke in the morning, with the tide, our two boats, and a little heipe of the winde, we rowed downe to the riuers mouth and there came to an anker about eleuen a clocke. Afterward our Captaine in the light horseman searched the sounding all about the mouth and comming to the Riuer, for his certaine instruction of a perfect description.

The next day, being Saturday, we wayed anker, and with a briese from the land, we sailed vp to our watering place, and there stopped, went on shore and filled all our empty caske with fresh water.

Our Captaine vpon the Rocke in the middest of the harbour obserued the height, latitude, and variation exactly vpon his instruments.

1. Astrolabe.
2. Semisphere.
3. Ringe instrument.
4. Crosse staffe.
5. And an excellent compasse made for the variation.

The certainty whereof, together with the particularities of euery depth and sounding, as well at our falling with the land, as in the discouery, and at our departure from the coast; I refer to his owne relation in the Map of his Geographicall description, which for the benefit of others he intendeth most exactly to publish.

The temperature of the Climate (albeit a very important matter) I had almost passed without mentioning, because it affoorded to vs no great alteration from our disposition in England; somewhat hotter vp into the Maine, because it lieth open to the South; the aire so wholesome, as I suppose not any of vs found our selues at any time more healthfull, more able to labour, nor with better stomacks to such good fare, as we partly found.

Sunday, the 16 of June, the winde being faire, and because we had set out of England vpon a Sunday, made the Ilands vpon a Sunday, and as we doubt not (by Gods appointment) happily fell into our harbour vpon a Sunday; so now (beseeching him still with like prosperity to blesse our returne into England our country, and from thence with his good will and pleasure to hasten our next arriuall there) we waied Anker and quit the Land vpon a Sunday.

The Fishing Banks

Tuesday, the 18 day, being not run aboue 30 leagues from land, and our Captaine for his certaine knowledge how to fall with the coast, hauing sounded euery watch, and from 40 fathoms had come into good deeping, to 70, and so to an hundred: this day the weather being faire, after the foure a clocke watch, when we supposed not to haue found ground so farre from land, and before sounded in aboue 100 fathoms, we had ground in 24 fathomes. Wherefore our sailes being downe, Thomas King boatswaine, presently cast out a hooke, and before he judged it at ground, was fished and haled vp an exceeding great and well fed Cod: then there were cast out 3 or 4 more, and the fish was so plentifull and so great, as when our Captaine would haue set saile, we all desired him to suffer them to take fish a while, because we were so delighted to see them catch so great fish, so fast as the hooke came down: some with playing with the hooke they tooke by the backe, and one of the Mates with two hookes at a lead at fiue draughts together haled vp tenne fishes; all were generally very great, some they measured to be fiue foot long, and three foot about.

This caused our Captaine not to maruell at the shoulding, for he perceiued it was a fish banke, which (for our farewell from the land) it pleased God in continuance of his blessings to giue vs knowledge of: the abundant profit whereof should be alone sufficient cause to draw men againe, if there were no other good both in present certaine, and in hope probable to be discouered. To amplifie this with words, were to adde light to the Sunne: for euery one in the shippe could easily account this present commodity; much more those of judgement, which knew what belonged to fishing, would warrant (by the heipe of God) in a short voyage with few good fishers to make a more profitable returne from hence than from Newfoundland: the fish being so much greater, better fed, and abundant with traine; of which some they desired, and did bring into England to bestow among their friends, and to testifie the true report.

Cod-liver oil

After, we kept our course directly for England & with ordinary winds, and sometime calmes, vpon Sunday the 14 of July about sixe a clocke at night, we were come into sounding in our channell, but with darke weather and contrary winds, we were constrained to beat vp and downe till Tuesday the 16 of July, when by fiue a clocke in the morning we made Sylly; from whence, hindered with calmes and small winds, vpon Thursday the 18 of July about foure a clocke after noone, we cans into Dartmouth: which Hauen happily (with Gods gracious assistance) we made our last and first Harbour in England.

Further, I haue thought fit here to adde some things worthy to be regarded, which we haue obserued from the Saluages since we tooke them.

First, although at the time when we surprised them, they made their best resistance, not knowing our purpose, nor what we were, nor how we meant to vse them; yet after perceiuing by their kinde vsage we intended them no harme, they haue neuer since seemed discontented with vs, but very tractable, louing, & willing by their best meanes to satisfie vs in any thing we demand of them, by words or signes for their vnderstanding: neither haue they at any time beene at the least discord among themselues; insomuch as we haue not scene them angry but merry; and so kinde, as if you giue any thing to one of them, he will distribute part to euery one of the rest.

We haue brought them to vnderstand some English, and we vnderstand much of their language; so as we are able to aske them many things. And this we haue obserued, that if we shew them any thing, and aske them if they haue it in their countrey, they will tell you if they haue it, and the vse of it, the difference from ours in bignesse, colour, or forme; but if they haue it not, be it a thing neuer so precious, they wil denie the knowledge of it.

They haue names for many starres, which they will shew in the firmament.

They shew great reuerence to their King, and are in great subiection to their Gouernours: and they will shew a great respect to any we tell them are our Commanders.

They shew the maner how they make bread of their Indian wheat, and how they make butter and cheese of the milke they haue of the Rain-Deere and Fallo-Deere, which they haue tame as we haue Cowes.

They haue excellent colours. And hauing seene our Indico, they make shew of it, or of some other like thing which maketh as good a blew.

One especiall thing is their maner of killing the Whale, which they call Powdawe; and will describe his forme; how he bloweth vp the water; and that he is 12 fathoms long; and that they go in company of their King with a multitude of their boats, and strike him with a bone made in fashion of a harping iron fastened to a rope, which they make great and strong of the barke of trees, which they veare out after him; then all their boats come about him, and as he riseth aboue water, with their arrowes they shoot him to death; when they haue killed him & dragged him to shore, they call all their chiefe lords together, & sing a song of joy: and those chiefe lords, whom they call Sagamos, divide the spoile, and giue to euery man a share, which pieces so distributed they hang vp about their houses for prouision: and when they boile them, they blow off the fat, and put to their peaze, maiz, and other pulse, which they eat. * * *

A briefe Note of what profits we saw the Countrey yeeld in the small time of our stay there.


Oke of an excellent graine, strait, and great timber.
Birch, very tall & great; of whose barke they make their Canoas.
Hazell. Maple.
Many fruit trees, which we knew not.


Ducks great.
Many birds of sundrie colours.
Many other fowls in flocks, vnknown.


Cod very great.
Haddocke great.
Herring great.
Lobstar great.
Muscels great, with pearles in them.
Cunner fish.


Wilde great Cats.
Dogges: some like Wolues, some like Spaniels.

Fruits, Plants, and Herbs

Tabacco, excellent sweet and strong.
abundance [of]
     Currant trees.

Angelica, a most soueraigne herbe.
An hearbe that spreadeth the ground, & smelleth like Sweet Marioram, great plenty.
Very good Dies, which appeare by their painting; which they carrie with them in bladders.

The names of the fiue Saluages which we brought home into England, which are all yet aliue, are these.
1. Tahanedo, a Sagamo or Commander.
2. Amoret.               or Nahanada
3. Skicowaros, Gentlemen.
4. Maneddo
5. Saffacomoit, a seruant. or Skidwares