Billings & Spencer Co., Hartford, Connecticut

Hartford, Connecticut

Tool Types

Chisels, Hammers, Machinist Tools, Pliers, Screwdrivers, Vises, and Wrenches

DATM Information

Founded by Charles E. Billings and Christopher M. Spencer (inventor of the Spencer rifle) as the Roper Sporting Arms Co. in 1869, the name was changed in 1873 though the company used 1869 as its "Est." date. Spencer left after the 1873 name change. Many tools are marked with patent dates and holders, usually C. E. Billings but including Hayden, September 21st 1886, Lowe April 10th, 1894, and a wrench patented June 6th 1871.

Identifying Marks

A variety of alignments of its full name, city, and "CT or "CONN." Some marks include "U.S.A." Alternately, a B in a triangle.

General Information

The Billings & Spencer Co. building was purchased and converted to a philanthropic organization including low-income housing and a farmer's market, now known as "Billings Forge." Billings & Spencer had become a major player in the drop-forged tool industry by the early 20th century--in fact, producing drop-forging equipment themselves--and their instruments can be found in abundance for sale online.



Nelson, Robert E., Ed. (1999). Directory of American Toolmakers: A listing of identified makers of tools who worked in Canada and the United States before 1900. Early American Industries Association.