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Baxter, M.S., Aston, S.R. (1983). Deep-ocean radioactive waste disposal: An evaluation of the seaweed critical pathway. Health Physics. 45. pg. 139-144.

Bowen, V.T. and Livingston, H.D. (1981). Radionuclide distributions in sediment cores retrieved from marine radioactive waste dumpsites. From Impacts of Radionuclide Releases into the Marine Environment. (Report No. IAEA-SM-248/151).Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
1975 Farallon Pacific Ocean Dumpsite sediment cone 239,240Pu 1,170 d.p.m./kg dry weight
1975 Atlantic Dumpsite sediment cone 55Fe 4,360 d.p.m./kg dry weight
Kershaw, P.J. and Baxter, A.J. (1995). The transfer of reprocessing wastes from north-west Europe to the Arctic. Deep-Sea Res. II. 43(6). pg. 1413-1448.

Panel on Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. (1971). Summary of U.S. sea disposal operations, 1951-1967 (Atlantic Ocean). pg. 37.
Year No. Containers, All Types Estimated Activity at Time of Packaging (Ci)
1951-67 33,998 79,482.9

Panel on Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. (1971). Summary of U.S. sea disposal operations, 1946-1966 (Pacific Ocean). pg. 37.
Year No. Containers, All Types Estimated Activity at Time of Packaging (Ci)
1946-1966 52,530 14,677.3

Panel on Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. (1971). Summary of sea disposal of packaged radioactive waste by the United Kingdom, 1950-1967. pg. 38.
Estimated Activity (Ci)
Year No. containers Alpha Beta
1951-67 50,570 3,331 44,096
Russian Ocean Dumping Sites 

Little information is available about either Russian or U.S. military ocean dumping sites; Aarkrog, et al. (1993) lists the following inventories of liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the Russians:

Berents Sea: 450 TBq
White Sea: 3.7 TBq
Kara Sea: 315 TBq + 570 TBq of median and low-level waste
Far Eastern Seas: 456 TBq
These inventories do not include Russian nuclear submarine accidents, and include only known discharges.

Facts and Problems Related to Dumping of Radioactive Waste at Seas Washing the Territory of the Russian Federation. (October 24, 1992). Materials of the Report of the Governmental Commission for Questions Related to Dumping of Radioactive Waste at Sea. which was created by decree of the President of the Russian Federation. No. 613-RD. English translation, by Greenpeace Moscow, 140 pages, including additional supporting documents. $20.00.

Aarkrog, A. (1994). Radioactivity in polar regions - Main sources. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 25, 21-35.
Komsomolet submarine, Barents Sea 1989 2.9 PBq 90Sr, 3.1 PBq 137Cs
Dumped submarines at Novaya Zemlya ~85 PBq 90Sr and 137Cs

Aarkrog, A., Tsaturov, Y. and Polikarpov, G.G. (1993). Sources to environmental radioactive contamination in the former USSR. Roskilde, Denmark: Riso National Laboratory.
Kola Peninsula, 1989, Nuclear submarine accident 74 TBq
Kara Sea; six nuclear reactors with spent fuel and ten reactors without spent fuel 85 PBq 
Vladavostak, Aug. 1985, submarine explosion and fire 185 PBq

Hamilton, T.F., Ballestra, S., Bacter, M.S., Gastaud, J., Osvath, I., Parsi, P., Povinec, P.P. and Scott, E.M. (1994). Radiometric investigations of Kara Sea sediments and preliminary radiological assessment related to dumping of radioactive wastes in the Arctic Sea. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 25, 113-134. Mount, M.E., Sheaffer, M.K. and Abbott, D.T. (1994). Kara Sea radionuclide inventory from naval reactor disposal. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 25, 11-19.

Sivintsev, Y. (1994). The seabed sources of radionuclides in the dumped reactor compartment of the atomic icebreaker, "Lenin". J. Environ. Radioactivity, 25, 3-10.

Special issue: Former Soviet dumping of nuclear reactors in shallow Arctic Seas. (1994). J. Environ. Radioactivity, 25, 1-2. Strand, P., Nikitin, A., Rudjord, A.L., Salbu, B., Christenson, G., Foyn, L., Kryshev, I.I., Chumichev, V.B., Dahlgaard, H. and Holm, E. (1994). Survey of artificial radionuclides in the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 25, 99-112.

The use of SNAP isotopic devices, also known as Radioisotope Thermal Generators (RTG), to power various satellite units as well as ocean based coast guard buoys and lighthouses has resulted in a number of accidents involving the dispersion of 238Pu (U.S. satellites), as well as uranium (Russian satellites) due to satellite orbital failure for one reason or another. The first and only well documented SNAP satellite (9A) failure occurred in 1964, when 16,000 Ci of 238Pu were dispersed in both the northern and southern hemispheres by a navy satellite that burned up upon reentry over the Indian Ocean. This accident has been well-documented in radiological surveillance literature, unlike other U.S. satellite failures, also, possibly containing 238Pu power sources, which have occurred since this date. Only limited information is available about Russian satellite failures. Three or more other functioning naval satellites are allegedly still orbiting with 238Pu power sources; a number of others have been aborted with the isotopic power source allegedly intact. The following data are reproduced from Panel on Radioactivity in the Marine Environment, (1971), pg. 33. Also see part 8 of this section for comments on radioisotopic power generators in marine environments.
System Power output Fuel form Fuel quantity (kCi) Aerospace application Design mode of re-entry Status (1968)
SNAP 8A 3 We 238Pu 1.6 Navy satellite 800 km orbit; burn-up on re-entry 2 launched 1961
SNAP 9A 3 We 238Pu 16 Navy satellite 960-km, 900-yr orbit; burn-up on re-entry 2 launched 1963 1 aborted 1964

The Cassini space probe has generated some Websites containing more information. Check out the Stop Cassini Earth Flyby Action Site and some Titan IV rocket explosion photos at the Space Online site.

The Reuters News Service reports that a stricken Russian Mars space probe containing four thermoelectric generators fueled by radioactive plutonium crashed into the Pacific Ocean between Easter Island and the Chilean capital of Santiago. Initial reports are that these generators contained only 200 gm of plutonium (238). Press reports that the canisters holding this plutonium are designed to withstand the heat and shock of re-entry may be unreliable. Additional information about this accident will be posted by RADNET as it becomes available.

A 12/17/96 story in the Christian Science Monitor indicates this satellite made re-entry over the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, rather than over the Pacific Ocean. An intensive search by Chilean authorities, Bolivian troops and presumably US intelligence authorities is under way in the hopes of recovering the encased cargo of 200 grams of plutonium intact. No news stories have appeared that RADNET is aware of since this date. Presumably, if the plutonium had been recovered intact, some type of public relations effort would result to emphasize the safety of the upcoming Cassini mission. In lieu of a public relations news byte on this topic, one may assume the plutonium vaporized upon re-entry. More information on this event would be greatly appreciated.

Bridges, Andrew. (December 21, 1998). NASA energy source blasted. The Daily News of Los Angeles, Valley Edition. pg. N4.

Furlong, Richard and Wahlquist, Earl. (April 1999). U.S. space missions using radioisotope power systems. Nuclear News. pg. 26. Grossman, Karl. (Summer 1996). Risking the World, Nuclear Proliferation in Space. Covert Action Quarterly. 1500 Massachusetts, Ave. N.W., #732, Washington, D.C. 20006. pg. 56. Grossman, Karl. (Spring 1997). Space probe explodes, plutonium missing. CovertAction Quarterly. 60. pg. 6-10. Hoffman, R.D. (April 12, 1997). Laugh, cry, be angry, do something... Draft supplemental environmental impact statement for the Cassini Mission: Analysis of NASA procedures (draft). published on-line at URL: http://www.animatedsoftware.com/cassini/dsei9704.htm. The Animated Software Company, P.O. Box 188006, Carlsbad, CA. Krey, P.W. (1967). Atmospheric burnup of a plutonium-238 generator. Science. 158. pg. 769-771. Martin, J.M. and Thomas, A.J. (1988). Anomalous concentrations of atmospheric plutonium-238 over Paris. J. Environ. Radioactivity. 7. pg. 1-16.
April 1982 Paris  Rainfall  239,240Pu  4.10 fCi/l 
Oct. 1982 Paris  Rainfall  238Pu  8.36 fCi/l 
Oct. 1982 Paris  Rainfall  239,240Pu  0.33 fCi/l
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (June, 1995). Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini Mission. Nesmith, S.A. (June 15, 1997). Plutonium space probe stirs fears; NASA is ignoring risks that could jeopardize many lives, critics say. The Palm Beach Post. A section, pg. 1A. Tracy, B.L., Prantl, F.A. and Quinn, J.M. (1984). Health impact of radioactive debris from the satellite Cosmos 954. Health Physics. 47. pg. 225-233.
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