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A. U.S. Military: General Bibliography

United States Department of Energy. (June 1996). The 1996 baseline environmental management report (BEMR). Vol. 1-3. Office of Strategic Planning and Analysis, Office of Environmental Management, U.S. DOE, Washington, D.C.

Albright, D., et. al. (1992). Facing reality: the future of the U. S. nuclear weapons complex. Ed. Peter Gray. Tides Foundation, San Francisco.

Cochran, T.B., Arkin, W.M. and Hoenig, M.M. (1984). Nuclear weapons databook, Vol. I: U.S. nuclear forces and capabilities. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., Ballinger Publishing Co., Cambridge, MA.

Cochran, T.B., Arkin, W.M., Norris, R.S. and Hoenig, M.M. (1987). Nuclear Weapons Databook: Vol. III, U.S. Nuclear Warhead Facility Profiles. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., Ballinger Publishing Co., Cambridge, MA. Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. (April 14, 1994). Plutonium storage safety at major Department of Energy facilities. DNFSB/TECH-1. DNFSB, Washington, DC. Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. (November 1998). Report to Congress on the role of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board regarding regulation of DOE's defense nuclear facilities. DNFSB, Washington, DC.  http://www.dnfsb.gov/CONGRESS/rept1198.htm. Energy Research and Development Agency. (1977). Report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences. Report No. ERDA, 77-68. Energy Research and Development Agency, Washington D.C. Fioravanti, M. and Makhijani, A. (1997). Containing the cold war mess. Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, Maryland. Kimball, D., Siegel, L. and Tyler, P. (May, 1993). Covering the map: a survey of military pollution sites in the United States. Physicians for Social Responsibility, Washington, D.C. and Military Toxics Project, Litchfield, Maine.

Makhijani, A. and Fioravanti, M. (January 1999). Cleaning up the Cold War mess. Science for Democratic Action. IEER. 7(2). pg. 1-24.

National Academy of Sciences. (1994). Management and disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Committee on International Security and Arms Control. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National Research Council. (1987). Safety issues at defense production reactors. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.

U. S. Congress, OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). (February, 1991). Complex Cleanup: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production. OTA-O-484. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy. (April, 1994). Committed to results: DOE's Environmental Management Program: An introduction. DOE/EM-0152P. DOE, Office of Environmental Restoration, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy. (1994). Drawing back the curtain of secrecy, restricted data declassification policy, 1946 to the present. (Report No. RDD-1). DOE, Office of Declassification, Washington D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy. (August, 1994). Environmental Management Fact Sheets. DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. (1995). Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom. DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. (February, 1995). Environmental Management 1994: Progress and plans of the environmental management program. DOE/EM-0228. DOE, Washington, D.C. pp. 104. U.S. Department of Energy. (1995). Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned. Report No. DOE/OSTI-8200, Rev. 58. DOE, Washington D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. (September, 1996). Ninth annual report to Congress: Fiscal year 1995 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. DOE, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Department of Energy. (1996). Plutonium: The first 50 years: United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 to 1994. DOE, Washington, D.C.

Table 1. Plutonium Material Balance 
All data expressed in metric tons of 239Pu
Government Production Reactors 103.4
Government Nonproduction Reactors 0.6
U.S. Civilian Industry
(excluding plutonium in commercial spent fuel)
Foreign Countries 5.7
Total 111.4
Expended in Wartime and Tests 3.4
Inventory Differences 2.8
Waste (Normal Operating Losses) (NOL) 3.4
Fission and Transmutation 1.2
Decay and Other Removals 0.4
U.S. Civilian Industry 0.1
Foreign Countries 0.7
Total 12.0
Total Acquisitions 111.4
Total Removals -12.0
Classified Transactions & Rounding 0.1
Actual Inventory 99.5
3 kg x 26,000 = 78,000 kg plutonium = 78 metric tons.

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Data Base for 1994 (U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel and Waste Inventories, Projections and Characteristics) lists the following annual and cumulative production of plutonium-239 in commercial nuclear power spent fuel (This is the same plutonium isotope the DOD report cited above has been tracking for weapons production plutonium inventories):

The Integrated Data Base also provides the following inventories of weapons production high-level waste and transuranic waste: The above data for weapons production wastes is too generalized to compare with the DOD data about 239Pu production contained in the report Plutonium: The First Fifty Years as no specific data about weapons production 239Pu is contained within the Integrated Data Base. Weapons production waste inventories contrast sharply with the huge quantities of spent fuel generated by the commercial nuclear power industry.

RADNET readers, please consider the following:

U. S. Department of Energy. (July 1998). Followup review of fissile material assurance in the Department of Energy complex. EH2PUB/07-98/12SR. Office of Oversight, Office of Environment, Safety and Health, U.S. DOE, Washington, D.C. http://tis-hq.eh.doe.gov/oversight/follow.html.

U. S. General Accounting Office. (August 1994). Environmental Cleanup--Better Data Needed for Radioactivity Contaminated Defense Sites. GAO/NSIAD-94-168. U.S. GAO, Washington, D.C.

Deepwell Injection

Chia, Y., and Chiu, J. (1994). Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection. Report no. ANL/ES/PP--73641. NTIS order no. DE94019291. Argonne National Laboratory, IL.

U.S. Department of Energy. (July, 1993). Recommended management practices for operation and closure of shallow injection wells at DOE facilities. Report no. ANL/EA/RP--80447. NTIS order no. DE93019531. Argonne National Laboratory, IL and the Ground Water Protection Council, Oklahoma City, OK. 143 pp. Veil, J.A. and Grunewald, B. (1993). Closure of shallow underground injection wells. Report no. ANL/EA/CP--79596. NTIS order no. DE94000445. Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC. pp. 11.
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